According to NSSO these are some facts about slums in India 2008-2009.
About 49 thousand slums were estimated to be in existence in urban India in
2008-09, 24% of them were located along nallahs and drains and 12% along
• About 57% of slums were built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies,
state government, etc.
• In 64% of notified slums, a majority of the dwellings were pucca, the
corresponding percentage for the non-notified ones being 50%.
• For 95% slums, the major source of drinking water was either tap or tubewell.
• Only 1% notified and 7% non-notified slums did not have electricity connection.
• About 78% of notified slums and 57% of the non-notified slums had a pucca road
inside the slum.
• About 73% notified and 58% non-notified slums had a motorable approach road.
• About 48% of the slums were usually affected by waterlogging during monsoon –
32% with inside of slum waterlogged as well as approach road to the slum, 7%
where the slum was waterlogged but not the approach road, and 9% where only
the approach road was waterlogged in the monsoon.
• The sanitary conditions in the slums in terms of latrine facility during 2008-09
showed considerable improvement since 2002. Latrines with septic tanks (or
similar facility) were available in 68% notified and 47% non-notified slums (up
from 66% and 35% respectively in 2002). At the other extreme, 10% notified and
20% non-notified slums (down from 17% and 51% in 2002) did not have any
latrine facility at all.
• About 10% notified and 23% non-notified slums did not have any drainage
facility. The corresponding proportions in 2002 had been 15% for notified and
44% for non-notified slums. Underground drainage systems or drainage systems
constructed of pucca materials existed in about 39% notified slums (25% in 2002)
and 24% non-notified slums (13% in 2002).
• Underground sewerage existed in about 33% notified slums (30% in 2002) and
19% non-notified slums (15% in 2002).
• Government agencies were collecting garbage from 75% notified and 55% nonnotified
slums. Among these slums, garbage was collected at least once in 7 days
in 93% notified and 92% non-notified slums. About 10% notified and 23% nonnotified
slums did not have any regular mechanism for garbage disposal.
• Over the last five years, facilities had improved in about 50% of notified slums in
terms of roads (both within-slum road and approach road) and water supply. The
incidence of deterioration of any of the existing facilities in notified slums during
the last five years was quite low (about 6% or below).
• In case of most slum facilities – sewerage and medical facilities being exceptions –
the facility was reported to have improved during the last five years in more than
20% of non-notified slums. Deterioration of any of the existing facilities in nonnotified
slums, like notified slums, was rare (about 9% or below).
• Facilities such as street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and medical facilities
were each reported by more than 10% of notified slums to be non-existent both at
the time of survey and five years earlier. In case of non-notified slums, facilities
like street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and garbage disposal were each
reported by more than 20% of the slums to be non-existent, both during the
survey and five years earlier.
• Where improvement had been brought about during the last 5 years, it was due to
the Government’s efforts in about 80-90% of slums, both notified as well as nonnotified
and for all the facilities. Improvement in educational facilities at primary
level was attributed to NGOs in 13% of the notified slums where such
improvement was reported. NGOs were also found to have played a role in the
improvement of latrine and sewerage system in non-notified slums.
Source: NSS Report no. 534 on “Some Characteristics of Urban Slums 2008-09”